Written by Veronika Vigliano

How do data transmit through fiber?

How do data transmit through fiber?

Fiber optics are used in fiber telecommunication system, it allows the transmission of data over longer distances – especially since it carries a higher bandwidth to homes and also offices. However, the message is being sent via a threadlike glass fiber using ultra-fast pulses of light. Although, fibers can be made out of translucent plastic, glass, or a combination of both, however, due to the lower optical attenuation, the fiber being used in long-distance telecommunications applications are usually glass.

Generally speaking, from cable TV shows, to phone calls, or Internet files that travel via copper wire cables in the form of electrical signals. In a fiber system, a transmitter therefore converts these electrical signals into different pulses of light which travel along the length of the fiber optic cable up until they get to the end of the line. Furthermore, the receiving end re-converts the light pulses into electrical signals in order to convert them back into voice, video, as well as data files.

The question is; how does an ultra-thin thread of glass carry so much information? Unlike ordinary glass which is not pure enough to allow light travel very far, optic glass on the other hand is so pure that almost nothing thwarts the light signals that are traveling down its path. Therefore, the fiber optic technology can carry so much data for very long distances –like 60 miles or more – and that’s before the light signals have to be boosted.

Fiber optics are designed to keep the light pulses from being lost out of the fiber and this is done by adding a layer of a different material around the inner core of pure glass. This process is known as the cladding – however, this layer, then redirects the light back toward the center and therefore prevent it from escaping. Added layers of coatings tends to guard the fiber from bends, cracks, and so on – that could weaken the light pulses.

The light pulses therefore, have to be strong enough and keep their shape long enough so that they don’t lose too much data as they travel along the path to transmit data via fiber optics. This method is possible via fiber optic light sources viz a viz laser diodes and light-emitting diodes, or LEDs.

Furthermore, the laser diodes utilized in fiber optic technology are also similar to the ones that are being used in CD and DVD players. Lasers transmit lucid light, which means all the light particles, or photons, have exactly the same wavelength. On the other hand, coherent light pulses keep their shape longer, which means they can operate at faster data speeds with less information loss. Also, the laser diodes keep the signal traveling farther before it loses its strength. Like the tiny green and red lights on computers, LEDs are less powerful than lasers, but they are cheaper to make. They work well enough for short-distance fiber optic networks.

Fiber optic telecommunication systems ensure a clearer phone call, faster Internet connections, and many more standard as well as HDTV cable channels. Currently, some multinational companies have changed their communication infrastructure into fiber optics and it’s high time you are not left out. Whether is a gigabit converter you need or an SFP transceiver for your network(s), ensure they are manufactured from a reputable fiber optics provider.

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